In his article, "Trading Places: Changes in Gender Roles Within the Iranian Immigrant Family" Ali Akbar Mahdi, studies the chaninging gender roles and new identity amont Iranina American society. Copyright reproduced by permission of Ali Akbar Mahdi "Trading Places: Changes in Gender Roles Within the Iranian Immigrant Family""
Nancy Julia Chodorow (born January 20, 1944) who is a feminist sociologist and psychoanalyst, in her article ask why only women mother? Copyright 1998, reproduced by permission of Nancy Chodorow "Why Women Mother" in Families in the U.S. Kinship and Domestic politics, Temple University Press, 1998.
Jane Collier in her article "Is There a Family? New Anthropological Views" asks us about various kinds of family and also different functions of a family. What kind of new functions we expect our modern family performe and if we can get all we want from family as we used to? Copyright 1992, reproduced by permission of Jane Collier and Sylvia Yanagisako "Is There a Family? New Anthropological Views" in Rethinking the Family, Some Feminist Questions, North Eastern Univeristy Press, 1992.
"The decade-long debate over whether Americans are working longer hours is misleading. Indeed, while well-educated professionals are working more hours than they used to, others with less education are working fewer. And the people under the most pressure are not just overburdened at work. Increasingly, these single parents and two-income couples find themselves in a time squeeze between home and work." (Kathleen Gerson
Jerry A. Jacobs) Copyright 2007, reproduced by permission of Kathleen Gerson . "The Work-Home Crunch." Family in transition. 14th ed. Boston, MA: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon, 2007. 350-359. Print.
Gender does not equal sex, and sex does not equal gender. Socialization continues until we’re older though social conformity and these gender roles change through that process. Because these roles are 'based on society, they fluctuate alongside the values of that society. Gender roles produce different status levels: male/masculine is considered norm, and female/feminity is considered ‘other. Copyright reproduced by permission of Yale University Press "Night to His Day: The Social Construction of Gender" by Judith Lorber in Paradoxes of Gender, Yale University Press, 1994. http://yalepress.yale.edu/yupbooks/home.asp,
Despite the significance of race and class in society, feminist theorizing routinely minimizes their importance. While many dimensions of motherhood’s context are ignored, the exclusion of race and/or class from feminist theorizing generally, and from feminist theorizing about motherhood specifically, merit special attention. Copyright reproduced by permission of Patricia Hill Collins"Shifting The Center: Race, Class, and Feminist Theorizing About Motherhood" in American Families, A Multicultural Reader, Routledge, 1999.
Arlie Hochschild, professor of sociology at the University of California at Berkeley, and her co-author MacConkey, emphasize that women are still primarily responsible for housework after full-time work and have to play the traditional role of a housewife. Because of this, the authors are questioning the idea of gender equality in the modern society. Copyright reproduced by permission of Arlie Hochschild "There's No Place Like Work" in The Family Experience, A Reader in Cultural Diversity, Pearson Education, 2004.
In, "The Changing Family", the introduction to the book of the same name, the editors give the history of changes that have occurred both in family structure and function Copyright 2007, reproduced by permission of Arlene Skolnick "The Changing Family" in Family in Transition.
Jesse Bernard (1903 – 1996), one of the most famous American sociologists and feminists, examines the social institute of marriage from the various outlooks of husbands and wives. Bernard believes gender is a socially constructed concept
as well as family.
Copyright reproduced by permission of Yale University press Jessie Bernard, “The future of Whose Marriage" in The future of marriage,(1982), pp. 3-15. http://yalepress.yale.edu/yupbooks/home.asp
The study of the family, as the smallest unit of our social structure and the first place for socializing a person, is not limited to a particular field. Science, religion, philosophy, history, etc. all have their own definition of this social unit. It is an interdisciplinary filed which has led to many social, economic, and policy decision-making. Since the beginning of their movements, feminists have questioned the idea of the nuclear family with the husband as the breadwinner the mother as the housekeeper. They believe that the idea of the holy role of women in the family is another tool to oppress woman. In this issue, Zannegaar provides a sampling of feminist theories about the role of the wife/mother in the family, the changing role of women in the family, and gender and maternity pay.