Gerda Lerner. “Introduction.” The Creation of Patriarchy pp. 3-11. Permission to republish granted by Oxford University Press.
Gerda Lerner was a historian, author, and teacher. Most notably she was one of the founders of the field of Women’s History, in which she helped in the development of Women’s History curricula. Returning to school in her late 40’s, she received her AB from the New School for Social research, and an MA and PhD from Columbia University. She went on to teach some of the first Women’s History courses at the New School for Social Research, Long Island University, Sarah Lawrence College, Columbia University, and others.
The Introduction of Lerner’s book presents the importance of Women’s History, especially in empowering women psychologically. She explains that the presence of Women’s History has proven to be profoundly successful in changing women’s lives. Lerner ultimately departs from this point to address, the lack of Women’s History throughout time, and how its emergence has enacted a change of thought and power.

Gerda lerner. “Definitions.” The Creation of Patriarchy pp. 231-243. Permission to republish granted by Oxford University Press.
Gerda Lerner was a historian, author, and teacher. Most notably she was one of the founders of the field of Women’s History, in which she helped in the development of Women’s History curricula. Returning to school in her late 40’s, she received her AB from the New School for Social research, and an MA and PhD from Columbia University. She went on to teach some of the first Women’s History courses at the New School for Social Research, Long Island University, Sarah Lawrence College, Columbia University, and others.
Lerner explains that Women’s History has provided a platform for women to critically question and speak to their experiences in various contexts. By reforming and engaging in this discourse, many of the widely used concepts behold many different social and cultural implications. In providing a definitions section, Lerner has aimed to elaborate on relevant concepts as she presents the meanings behind them. However, with respects to her work, she presents these concepts through a perspective that reflects the historical position of women.

Carol Gilligan. “Looking Back, Looking Forward: Revisiting in a Different Voice.” Classics@ Issue 9: Defense Mechanisms.
Carol Gilligan is an American feminist, ethicist, and psychologist. She had received her BA from Swarthmore College, MA from Radcliffe College, and PhD from Harvard. Currently she is a professor at New York University, with the School of Education and School of Law, and a Visiting Professor at the University of Cambridge, Center for Gender Studies.
Best known for her 1982 work, In a Different Voice, Carol Gilligan provides a reflection on the various processes that helped develop the text and its overall success. She also gives insight in how this work helped challenge the accepted culture at the time, and provide women with a platform to essentially speak for themselves in a world heavily influenced by the measures of men.

Photos granted by the Women on Walls flickr photostream, under Creative Commons License.

.Permission to republish granted by BigThink Inc

Gerda Lerner was a historian, author, and teacher. Most notably she was one of the founders of the field of Women’s History, in which she helped in the development of Women’s History curricula. Returning to school in her late 40’s, she received her AB from the New School for Social research, and an MA and PhD from Columbia University. She went on to teach some of the first Women’s History courses at the New School for Social Research, Long Island University, Sarah Lawrence College, Columbia University, and others.

Sandra Harding. “Ways of Knowing and the “Epistemological Crisis” of the West.” Knowledge, Difference, and Power: Essays Inspired by Women’s Ways of Knowing pp. 431-433, 438-449, ed. Nancy Goldberger et al. Permission to republish granted by Basic Books.
Sandra Harding is a philosopher of feminist and postcolonial theory, epistemology, and the philosophy of science. Most notably, she is one of the founders of the fields of feminist epistemology. She received her PhD from NYU in 1973, and is currently a professor at UCLA.
Harding’s chapter aims to locate women’s ways of knowing outside of gender relations, and instead between the experiences of various women. This approach therefore has rejected the popular essentialist understanding of women’s ways of knowing, that looks at women as fundamentally alike, and instead recognizes differences. These differences are what Harding explains provide a more comprehensive look at women as they are shaped by their own identities, encompassing experiences of class, race, gender, etc.

Carol Gilligan is an American feminist, ethicist, and psychologist. She had received her BA from Swarthmore College, MA from Radcliffe College, and PhD from Harvard. Currently she is a professor at New York University, with the School of Education and School of Law, and a Visiting Professor at the University of Cambridge, Center for Gender Studies.
Best known for her 1982 work, In a Different Voice, Carol Gilligan provides a reflection on the various processes that helped develop the text and its overall success. She also gives insight in how this work helped challenge the accepted culture at the time, and provide women with a platform to essentially speak for themselves in a world heavily influenced by the measures of men.

.Permission to republish granted by BigThink Inc