E. Ann Kaplan. “Global Feminisms and the State of Feminist Film Theory.” Signs, Vol. 30, No. 1, Beyond the Gaze: Recent Approaches to Film. Eds. Kathleen McHugh and Vivian Sobchack (Autumn 2004), pp. 1403-1424. Permission to republish granted by The University of Chicago Press.

E. Ann Kaplan is a Distinguished Professor of English and Cultural Analysis and Theory. She is also the founding director of The Humanities Institute at SUNY, Stony Brook. Her research have long included Women’s and Gender Studies, Feminist Film Theory, Film Noir, Postmodernism, Post-colonialism in film and media, Popular Culture, and World Cinema.

In her article, Kaplan raises very important questions regarding the current state and future of feminisms. Addressing the challenges that feminisms have faced throughout recent years, the article explores what this means and how this transforms global feminisms. With a focus on worldwide trauma as a one of these challenges, Kaplan not only discusses these issues but encourages further discussion on achieving some feminist goals, and especially the role of the feminist in this new globalized era.

Lynn Spigel. “Theorizing the Bachelorette: ‘Waves’ of Feminist Media Studies.” Signs, Vol. 30, No. 1, Beyond the Gaze: Recent Approaches to Film. Eds. Kathleen McHugh and Vivian Sobchack (Autumn 2004), pp. 1403-1424. Permission to republish granted by The University of Chicago Press.

Lynn Spigel holds a PhD in the field of Film and Television from University of California-Los Angeles. She has written numerous books about the cultural history of media and media audiences, with special focus on issues of gender, technology, and media’s relation to everyday life. Currently she is a Professor, Frances Willard Professorship of Screen Cultures, and Director of Graduate Studies, Screen Cultures at Northwestern University’s School of Communication.

Spigel’s article presents the influence of feminism as a historical center in the development of film studies. However, she explains through her own experience that the protocols of feminist film theory did not always provide the answers for how and in what way women were accounted for on film. Regardless of these limitations, Spigel instead calls upon her own feminist perspective, in conjunction to research in cultural studies, in order to address some of the areas in which feminist criticism can effectively translate into the realm of cinema. Most importantly she discusses the ways in which feminist film practice can inform and change ideas of female agency in current popular culture.

Patrice Petro. “Reflections on Feminist Film Studies, Early and Late.” Signs, Vol. 30, No. 1, Beyond the Gaze: Recent Approaches to Film. Eds. Kathleen McHugh and Vivian Sobchack (Autumn 2004), pp. 1403-1424. Permission to republish granted by The University of Chicago Press.

Patrice Petro is former President of the Society for Cinema and Media Studies. She has also served as Vice Provost for International Education, Director of the Center for International Education, and Professor of English and Film Studies at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Petro received her MA in Modern European History, Modern American History at the University of California Santa Barbara, and her PhD in the Division of Broadcasting and Film at the University of Iowa.

Petro’s article is another reflection on feminist film studies in regards to its history and current development. She broadly but distinctly addresses the role of film theory in the world today, its influences from and on other related fields, and especially the relevancy of its practice today.

Laura Mulvey. “Looking at the Past from the Present: Rethinking Feminist Film Theory of the 1970s.” Signs, Vol. 30, No. 1, Beyond the Gaze: Recent Approaches to Film. Eds. Kathleen McHugh and Vivian Sobchack (Autumn 2004), pp. 1403-1424. Permission to republish granted by The University of Chicago Press.

Laura Mulvey is a British feminist film theorist, who receive her educated at St. Hilda’s College, Oxford. She is currently a Professor of film and media studies at Birkbeck, University of London. Prior to her current position, she worked at the British Film Institute for many years.

Departing from the historical developments of Feminist Film Theory, as in reference to its British origins, Laura Mulvey aims to discuss the fissure between the theory and practice of “then” and “now”. She explores how various developments have arisen since 1970s and have contributed to a divide throughout film theory history. The article especially notes the introduction of technology and various other advancements in the realm of cinema, and how that has ultimately contributed to this space in history, a space in which she utilizes as a platform for feminist reflection.

Annette Kuhn. “The State of Film and Media Feminism.” Signs, Vol. 30, No. 1, Beyond the Gaze: Recent Approaches to Film. Eds. Kathleen McHugh and Vivian Sobchack (Autumn 2004), pp. 1403-1424. Permission to republish granted by The University of Chicago Press.

Annette Kuhn is Senior Professorial Fellow in the School of Languages, Linguistics and Film, and a long-standing editor of the journal Screen. She has written a number of books in which she uses her background as a theorist of culture. Currently she is a lecturer in Film and television Studies at Glasgow University.

In this article, Kuhn explains her experience and understanding of film as a distinctive medium, especially for feminist perspectives. With the newly developed field of media studies included, she aims to explore the evolution of these fields, old and new, and especially their mutual influences as they continue to develop throughout time.

Mary Ann Doane. “Aesthetics and Politics.” Signs, Vol. 30, No. 1, Beyond the Gaze: Recent Approaches to Film. Eds. Kathleen McHugh and Vivian Sobchack (Autumn 2004), pp. 1403-1424. Permission to republish granted by The University of Chicago Press.

Mary Ann Doane received a BA in English from Cornell University, her PhD in Speech and Dramatic Art from the University of Iowa. She specializes in film theory, feminist theory, and semiotics. Doane is currently a part of the UC Berkeley Film and Media faculty as the Class of 1937 Film and Media Professor.

In this article, Doane comments on the great amount of activity that is happening in the field of film studies, especially in relation to cultural studies. However, she explains that there are still some points that have been neglected, in which she is writing to uncover. With respects to theoretical perspectives, and the history of film studies and feminist film criticism, she ultimately explores the relationship between aesthetics and politics, a connection that she explains has never fully been addressed.

Liza Johnson. “Perverse Angle: Feminist Film, Queer Film, Shame.” Signs, Vol. 30, No. 1, Beyond the Gaze: Recent Approaches to Film. Eds. Kathleen McHugh and Vivian Sobchack (Autumn 2004), pp. 1403-1424. Permission to republish granted by The University of Chicago Press.

Liza Johnson is a filmmaker and writer. Her narrative shorts and experimental videos have screened in Berlin, Rotterdam, and many other international festivals and venues. Johnson has also published critical writing on art and film, and is most currently working on a feature film.

With her background in filmmaking, Liz Johnson explores the new possibilities in feminist filmmaking as emergent since the mid-nineties. With reference to notable female directed films, this ultimately draws on the new strategies for narrating desires that are profound in unexpected feelings and emotion.

Judith Mayne. “Marlene, Dolls, Fetishism.” Signs, Vol. 30, No. 1, Beyond the Gaze: Recent Approaches to Film. Eds. Kathleen McHugh and Vivian Sobchack (Autumn 2004), pp. 1403-1424. Permission to republish granted by The University of Chicago Press.

Judith Mayne is a Distinguished Humanities Professor of French at Ohio State University. Her areas of scholarship and research include French Cinema and Feminist Film Studies. Apart from teaching, she has authored eight books to date, all incorporating her work on Cinema and Feminist Theory.

Mayne’s article reflects back to feminist film theory as a production of both the fields of feminist studies and film studies. With respect to the past, she explores the give and take between these fields which have come to inform and develop the current application of feminist film theory and criticism. Most notably in this article, is Mayne’s commentary on the assumptions regarding feminist film tradition, and the especially the assumed reliance on psychoanalysis, as the influence of “theory” itself.

Nicole R. Fleetwood. “Visible Seams: Gender, Race, Technology, and the Media Art of Fatimah Tuggar.” Signs, Vol. 30, No. 1, Beyond the Gaze: Recent Approaches to Film. Eds. Kathleen McHugh and Vivian Sobchack (Autumn 2004), pp. 1403-1424. Permission to republish granted by The University of Chicago Press.

Nicole R. Fleetwood received her PhD from Stanford University in the Program of Modern Thought and Literature. She also holds her B.Phil from the School of Interdisciplinary Studies at Miami University, Ohio. Fleetwood has worked as a consultant and has collaborated with a number of arts organizations and programs. Along with her research and book project on prison art and visuality, she is currently working as an Associate Professor in the Department of American Studies at Rutgers University.

Nicole R. Fleetwood draws upon the artwork of Fatimah Tuggar to discuss the important historical and social issues that are portrayed together through film and media. In this article, Fleetwood traces how artist Tuggar illustrates connections between Western narratives of technology, racialized and gendered subjectivity, and globalization. In addition, she provides an important perspective into how these influences come together in representation and symbolism, as they ultimately contribute to overdeveloped nations’ technological productions and fantasies.

Negar Mottahedeh. “Life is Color! Toward a Transnational Feminist Analysis of Mohsen Makhmalbaf’s Gabbeh.” Signs, Vol. 30, No. 1, Beyond the Gaze: Recent Approaches to Film. Eds. Kathleen McHugh and Vivian Sobchack (Autumn 2004), pp. 1403-1424. Permission to republish granted by The University of Chicago Press.

Negar Mottahedeh is a cultural critic and film theorist that specializes in interdisciplinary and feminist contributions in the fields of Middle East Studies and Film Studies. She is most known for her work regarding Iranian Cinema. She received her PhD from the University of Minnesota and is currently an Associate Professor in the Program in Literature and in the Women’s Studies Program at Duke University.

Mottahedeh’s essay explores what transnational feminist practice can contribute to understanding national cinemas. With a focus on strategies of representation in Iranian cinema, she situates her analysis in a transnational feminist perspective. Through this she proposes various questions in which she addresses the relationships between modernity, postcoloniality, tradition, nationality, and authenticity. She ultimately uses her perspective to dissect these aspects in the field of film studies, and importantly identifies some of the concerns which initially brought her to these realizations in the first place.

Anita Sarkeesian is a media critic and creator of Feminist Frequency, a video webseries that explores the representations of women in pop culture narratives. Her work essentially focuses on deconstructing the stereotypes and tropes associated with women as they are portrayed in these media platforms. Anita earned her bachelor's degree in Communication Studies at California State University Northridge, and her Master's degree in Social and Political Thought at York University.

Oscar season is a time when members of Hollywood are celebrated and rewarded for the work that they do, but it is also a time when we see just how male centered the movie industry really is. Anita Sarkeesian explores the overabundance of male centered narratives in Hollywood, and offers a few tools for her audience to identify whether or not the story they are watching is male or female centered. Permission to republish granted by Feminist Frequency.