Allamezade, Sahar. “Women and Literature.” Article written specifically for Zannegaar Journal.

Sahar Allamezade is a PhD candidate in Comparative Literature at the University of Maryland, with a focus on gender and sexuality, and Issue #20's contributing scholar.

Excerpts taken from The Awakening by Kate Chopin. First published by Herbert S. Stone & Company in 1899.

Kate Chopin (1850-1904) was an American author. Considered today as one of the most prominent feminist writers of the twentieth century, Chopin’s short stories and novels documented her surroundings and commonly described the major events of her lifetime, including the abolitionist movements and the emergence of feminism. These excerpts were taken from Chopin’s novel, The Awakening, originally titled A Solitary Soul, first published in 1899 by Herbert S. Stone & Company.

Excerpt taken from “Does Marriage Hinder A Woman’s Self-Development?” by Gertrude Atherton. First published in Lady’s Realm 5 (March 1899): 579.

Gertrude Atherton (1857-1948) was a prominent American author during the late nineteenth-early twentieth century. Atherton was known for her strong-will and strident independence. Her short stories, essays, and magazine and newspaper articles commonly discussed issues of feminism, politics, and war. This excerpt was taken from Atherton’s essay, “Does Marriage Hinder A Woman’s Self-Development?” fist published in Lady’s Realm in 1899.

Excerpt taken from “Chapter X: Parental Affection” in A Vindication of the Rights of Women: with Strictures on Political and Moral Subjectivity by Mary Wollstonecraft. First printed in Boston, by Peter Edes for Thomas and Andrews, Faust’s Statue, no. 45, Newbury-street, in 1792.

Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797) was an English writer, philosopher, and women’s rights advocate. Wollstonecraft famously argued that women are not naturally inferior to men, and suggested that both sexes be treated as rational beings. This excerpt is taken from Chapter X of Wollstonecraft’s best known works, A Vindication of the Rights of Women: with Strictures on Political and Moral Subjectivity, first published in 1792.

Excerpt taken from “Professions for Women” in The Death of the Moth and Other Essays by Virginia Woolf. First published by Harcourt, Brace & Company in 1942.

Adeline Virginia Woolf (1882-1941) was an English writer and modernist. Considered one of the twentieth century’s premier novelists, Woolf’s popularity declined sharply after WWII, only to rise again with the growth of feminist criticism in the 1970s. Many of Woolf’s works explored the difficulties that female writers and intellectuals faced during her lifetime due to the disproportionate amount of legal and economic power men held over women. Woolf examined these issues in her essay “Professions for Women,” posthumously published by Harcourt, Brace & Company in 1942, along with a selection of her other essays, collectively known as The Death of the Moth and Other Essays.

Excerpt taken from The Bell Jar by Sylvia Plath. First published by Heinemann in 1963 under the pseudonym “Victoria Lucas.” Published under Plath’s name for the first time in 1967.

Sylvia Plath (1932-1963) was an American poet, novelist, and short story writer. She is credited with advancing the genre of confessional poetry, and won a posthumous Pulitzer Price in 1982 for The Collected Poems. This excerpt is taken from her only novel, The Bell Jar, a semi-autobiographical novel published for the first time shortly before her death in 1963 under the pseudonym, “Victoria Lucas.” The Bell Jar was published under Plath’s name in 1967, and became increasingly popular in the 1970s.

Excerpt taken from “White Magic” by Ella D’Arcy. Originally published in Monochromes by Ella D’Arcy. London: John Lane, 1895.

Ella D’Arcy (1857-1937) was an English writer best known for her short stories. D’Arcy’s style is often characterized as “psychologically realist” and focuses on themes such as marriage, the family, deception and imitation. This excerpt is taken from the story “White Magic” first published in her work, Monochromes, in 1895.

Excerpt taken from “Of Queens’ Gardens” in Sesame and Lilies by John Ruskin. First published by John Wiley & Son in 1865.

John Ruskin (1819-1900) was a prominent English social thinker, philanthropist, art critic, and watercolorist. A prolific writer, during his lifetime Ruskin wrote on subjects ranging from geology, architecture, literature, and education. This excerpt, taken from Ruskin’s lecture, “Of Queens’ Gardens” was one of three lectures that comprised his work, Sesame and Lilies, published in 1865 and delivered in 1864 at the town halls of Rusholme and Manchester. Sesame and Lilies is often regarded as a classic nineteenth-century statement on the natures and duties of men and women. In “Of Queens’ Gardens,” Ruskin counsels women to take their places as the moral guides of men, and urges their parents to educate them to this end.

Excerpt taken from “The Girl of the Period” by Eliza Lynn Linton. First published in Saturday Review, March 1868.

Eliza Lynn Linton (1822-1898) was a British novelist, essayist, and anti-feminist journalist. During her lifetime, Linton authored more than 20 novels and gained prominence as the first female salaried journalist. This excerpt, taken from her famous essay “The Girl of the Period,” was first published in the Saturday Review in 1868, and expressed her disapproval of feminism.